Saturday, October 3, 2020

What Is Chemical Bonding- | Definition, types and Examples

What Is Chemical Bonding- | Definition, Types and Examples

Chemical Bonding Definition:-

The force of attraction which holds the two atoms together in a molecule is known as chemical bonding.

                               OR

A chemical bond is a chemical link between two or more than two atoms.

 WHY BONDS ARE FORMED?

  • A bond is formed to get stability.
  • Atom formed bonds to lowers its energy.
  • To complete its outermost shell.
What Is Chemical Bonding- | Definition, types and Examples
chemical bonding


 There is two rule on the basis of which atoms fills there outermost shell.

  •               Doublet Rule

  •               Octet Rule
1.Doublet Rule Simple Definition:-

The tendency of an atom to complete its outermost shell by two electrons.

2.Octect Rule Simple Definition:-

The ability or tendency of an atom to complete its outermost shell by eight electrons.

Types Of Chemical Bonding;-

The following are the types of chemical bonding with examples:-

1.Ionic Bond Definition:-

A bond is formed between two atoms by the complete share of electrons from one atom to another atom.

                                  OR

The electrostatic force of attraction which hold the two opposite ions together.

Ionic Bond Examples

             Na+Cl--------Nacl

The bond in the NaCl is ionic because sodium gives one electron to the chlorine so a positive charge comes on Sodium ion and negative on chlorine ion so complete transfer of electron occurs.


2.Covelent Bond Definition:-

The type of bond which involves the mutual sharing of electrons between the two atoms.

What Is Chemical Bonding- | Definition, types and Examples
covalent bond definition


Covalent Bond Types

There are three types of covalent bonds on the basis of electron sharing.

Single Covalent Bond Defiinition:-

The type of bonding involves the mutual sharing of one electron pair between the two atoms.

Single Covalent Bond Examples:-

                 H+H------H2

Double Covalent Bond Definition:-

The type of bonding involves the mutual sharing of two-electron pairs between two atoms.

DoubleCovalent Bond Examples

         O + O------ O2

The bond between two oxygen atoms is a double bond covalent bond.


Triple Covalent Bond Definition:-

The type of bonding involves the mutual sharing of three electron pairs.

Triple Covalent Bond Examples

N + N------ N2

Types of covalent bond on the basis of polarity

Polar covalent bond Definition:-

when two dissimilar atoms join by covalent bond such that positive and negative poles are created such type of bonding is known as a polar covalent bond

Examples

During the formation of HCL hydrogen positive ion and chlorine negative ion together by polar covalent bond

Non-polar covalent bond Definition:-

when the two similar atoms join by covalent bond such that no positive and negative  poles are created such type of bonding is known as non-polar covalent bonding

Examples

such type of bonding is present in the H2, Cl2, CCl4.


ABOUT THE POST

In this post, ou learned in detail about the chemical bonding, types of chemical bonding in all and easy ways. if you have any questions related to this article you can ask me in the comment section I will try to answer. thanks

What Is Energy& Energy Harvesting | Energy Importance

What Is Energy& Energy Harvesting | Energy Importance 

Before going to explain our topic we will discuss first that what is energy? and why energy is necessary for organisms' daily normal activities. So without wasting your time lets get to discuss it.

 What is Energy?

Energy Definition:-

The ability of an organism to do work is known as Energy.enrgy exist in various form like potential energy, Kinectic energy, Thermal energy, etc

What Is Energy& Energy Harvesting | Energy Importance
What is energy?


Why Energy Is Important?

Energy Importance

Energy is important for all living organism for their body growth, reproduction, and their normal life activities like walking, running, playing, eating etc.energy are very important for the body because every cell of the body need energy for their survival and normal function. Living organisms use the energy in the form of chemical energy and then energy is generated or produce through cellular respiration. we will discuss cellular respiration below in detail. 

Definition Of Energy Harvesting

.Energy Harvesting is the collection of energy in living organisms.every cell of the body needs energy for their survival and good function. the energy will produce in the body through cellular respiration.

What Is Cellular Respiration?

Cellular Respiration Definition:-

It is the series of enzyme control oxidation-reduction reactions in which a respiratory Substrate(formed during photosynthesis) is oxidized to carbon dioxide and oxygen is reduced into the water with the release of energy by a bond to bond breakage.

 Reaction

Glucose(C6H12O6) + Oxygen(O2)------ 6Co2+6H2O+38ATP 

One Atp Is Equal To &.3 kilocalories

What is a calorie?

Calorie Definition:-

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram water by one degree celsius.

What Is Energy& Energy Harvesting | Energy Importance
energy importance


Important Molecules In Energy Harvesting

The most important molecules in energy harvesting are electron carriers. the function of these molecules is the carrying of high energy electron from one molecule into another molecule.

These electron carriers are Nicotine Amide Addennine  Di-Nucleotide(NAD) and Cytochromes.

Cytochromes carry the only electron while NAD can carry both electron and proton from one molecule into another. There are further three types of electron carriers which are discussed below in detail.

1.Soluble electron Carrier:-

It is present in soluble form in the cytoplasm and carries an electron from one molecule into another molecule.

2.Membrane Bounded Electron Carrier

It is bounded to the membrane and has a fixed position in the cytoplasm and didn't move from its place.that's why they are called membrane-bounded electron carriers.

3.Mobile Electron Carrier:

They are present within the membrane and are mobile can move from one molecule to another molecule.

What Is Energy& Energy Harvesting | Energy Importance
energy harvesting




ABOUT THE POST

In this article, you learned in detail about the Energy, Energy Harvesting, the Importance of Energy in Organisms life, Cellular Respiration, and about Electron carriers. If you have any questions regarding this article you can ask me in the comment box I will try to clear your question in an easy way. please do like and share it with your friends. Remember me in your prayers. Thanks


What Is An Adjective? | Defintion, Types And Examples

 What Is An Adjective? | Defintion, Types And Examples

Adjective Definition:-

An adjective is a word which describes or adds something to a noun or to the meaning of a pronoun

Adjective Examples In Sentence:-

  • Rashid is a clever boy.
  • She is an intelligent girl.

What Is An Adjective? | Defintion, Types And Examples
Adjective definition


Adjective functions

There are two main functions of adjectives.

Attributive Adjective Definition:-

In attributive, the adjective comes before the noun

Attributive Adjective Examples:-

           Greenlight, My noisy Son.

Predicative Adjective Definition:-

In predicative adjective come after the noun

Predicative Adjective Examples

  •      The girl is clever.
  •      The boy is handsome.


   The Comparison Of Adjective

An adjective has three comparisons these three degrees of comparisons are given below.

1.The Positive Degree

The positive degree shows the simple quality of an object without reference to others.

Examples

  • The boy is strong.
  • My house is small.
  • Aslam is a clever boy.

2.The Comparative Degree

 The comparative degree shows a higher degree of quality and is used when two objects of the same class or kind are compared.

Examples

  •     The boy is stronger than that boy.
  • My house is smaller than yours.
  • Aslam is clever than Ahmad.

What Is An Adjective? | Defintion, Types And Examples
adjective kinds



3.The Superlative Degree

The superlative degree shows the highest degree of quality and is used when one object is compared with all other things of the same class.

Examples

  • This is the strongest.
  • My home is the smallest.
  • Aslam is cleverest.


Kinds Of Adjectives With Examples

The different kinds of adjectives are discussed below in detail.

1.Adjective Of Quality Definition:-

The adjective of quality shows the kind or quality of a person or thing as,

Examples

  • Lahore is a big city.
  • Our librarian is an honest man.

2.Adjective Of Quantity Definition:-

The adjective of quantity shows the quantity of something as,

Examples

  • We have enough books.
  • He got half of the share of his father's property

3.Adjective Of Numbers Definition:-

The adjective of numbers shows the number of persons or things.

Examples

  • I have read three Novels.
  • He has five brothers.

4.Demonstrative Adjective Definition:-

Demonstrative adjective point out something as,

Examples

  • This is an interesting book.
  • These shopkeepers are not honest.

5.Interrogative Adjective Definition:-

Interrogative adjective use as question words with a noun to ask the question as,

Examples

  • Whose pen have you taken?
  • Which shoes he does like to buy?

What Is An Adjective? | Defintion, Types And Examples
Adjective


ABOUT THE POST

In this post, you learned in detail about the adjective and its various kinds. if you have any query you can ask me in the comment box.thanks for reading

Friday, October 2, 2020

What Is A Verb? | Types of Verbs And Examples

What Is A Verb? | Types of Verbs And Examples

Verb Definition:-

Verbs deal with the action,process or state of being.

Verb Examples Sentences

  • She is singing a song
  • He is a boy
  • The diamond is flawed.
  • She is worried.

Verb Types:-

  • Transitive Verb 
  • Intransitive Verb


1.Transitive Verb Definition:-

A transitive verb is a verb that denotes an action which passes over from the doer or subject to an object

Transitive Verb Examples:-

  • The Boy kicks the football.

In the above sentence action denoted by the verb(kicks) passes over from the doer or subject(boy) to some object(Football) he verb (kicks) is therfore called a transitive verb.


2.Intransitive Verb Definition:-

An intransitive verb is a verb that denotes an action which does not pass over to an object.

Intransitive Verb Examples

  •            The boy laughs.

In the above sentence, the action denoted by the verb(laughs) stops with the doer or subject(boy) and doesn't pass over to an object so the verb(laughs) is therefore called an intransitive verb.

                      

 PARTS OF VERB

What Is A Verb? | Types of Verbs And Examples
Modal Verbs


Modal Verbs Definition:-

Modal verbs express meaning such as ability,permission,possibility,certainty, necessity, or obligations.

Following are the different modal verbs.

1.Can;-

Can is used to show ability,inability,possibility, impossibility.

Example

  •            If you can help me?
  •           I can climb a tree.

May:-

May is used to showing permission,prayers and possibility.

Example

  •     May I come in sir?
  •     It may rain today.
  •     May you succeed in the exam.

3.Should:-

It is used to show duty or obligations.

For Example 

  • We should obey the law.
  •     he should help the poor.

4.Must:-

It is used to show necessity and obligation

Example

  1. He must Work Hard.
  2. he must improve his spellings.
What Is A Verb? | Types of Verbs And Examples
what is verb


ABOUT THE ARTICLE

In this article, you learn in detail about the verb, its definition, and types in detail. if you have any query you can ask me in the comment box. Remember me in your prayers. Thanks

Bacteria: Definition, Structure,Types,Shapes And Economic Importance

 Bacteria: Definition, Structure, Types, Shapes And Economic Importance

Bacteria Definition

It is the smallest, unicellular, simplest prokaryotes having a cell wall made up of murein

Bacteria: Definition, Structure, Types, Shapes And Economic Importance
Bacteria Defintion


Discovery of Bacteria

A Dutch scientist Van Leeuwenhoek in 1676  was the first who reported the bacteria and give them the name bacteria in 1683.

Loui Pasteur in the 19th century confirmed the existence of microbes(Bacteria)

Occurrence Of Bacteria

Bacteria is present everywhere, where life is possible..e.g in soil, air, water, food, desert, bodies of plants and animals, and extreme environment.

Structure Of Bacteria 

Bacteria are prokaryotic organisms

it is small microscopic and cannot be seen by the naked eyes.

Nuclear materials are placed in the cytoplasm of bacteria.

The cell wall is present in the bacteria which is made up of murein.

Membrane-bounded organelles like Golgi Bodies, Endoplasmic Reticulum is absent.

Only Ribosomes are present and it is the largest organelle in the bacteria but is the smallest in the eukaryotic cells.

In a bacteria, a cell membrane slightly fold or invaginate and form a structure known as Mesosome

Mesosome Function

Mesosome help in respiration

it also helps in cell division.


In bacteria, a circular structure is present which is called plasmid and it is the extrachromosomal DNA of bacteria.

Plasmid replicate irrespective of the cell division

The plasmid is used in genetic engineering for cloning.

In bacteria, a whip-like extension is present which is called flagella.flagella help bacteria in locomotion.it is made up of a protein called flagellin.

Bacteria: Definition, Structure, Types, Shapes And Economic Importance
bacteria structure



Classification Of Bacteria

Bacteria are classified into the following groups on the basis of morphology, mode of nutrition, biochemical, and genetics

1.Proteobacteria:-

it is the largest group of gram-negative bacteria that contain autotrophic, heterotrophic, aerobic, and anaerobic bacteria.

Example

                 Rhizobium

Types of Proteo Bacteria:-

It is further divides into four types which are listed below.

Alpha-Proteobacteria

Beta-Proteobacteria

Gamma-Proteobacteria

Epsilon-Proteobacteria.


2.Chlamydias:-

It is a spherical gram-negative, intracellular bacteria that cause disease in humans. e.g eyes and urogenital diseases.

Example

            Clamydiae Trachomatis

3.Spirochetes:-

It is spiral heterotrophic bacteria some of them are free-living and some are a parasite on humans and cause disease in them. e.g Syphilis disease.

Example

      Treponema Palladium

4.Gram-Positive Bacteria:-

it is heterotrophic bacteria some are free-living and some causes diseases

Sub-Groups

It is divided into subgroups some are given below.

Actinomycetes

Streptomycetes


5.Cyanobacteria:-

Itis a major group of bacteria which contain photosynthetic species

They used water in photosynthesis and produces oxygen as a by-product like green plants

Example

                   Nostoc

Bacteria on the basis Of Flagella divided into the Following Types


1.Atrichous BActeria:-

The bacteria which have no flagella are known as atrichous bacteria.

2.Lophotrichous Bacteria:-

The bacteria which have a cluster or group of flagella at one end are known as lophotrichous bacteria.

3.Peritrichous Bacteria:-

The bacteria which is surrounded by bacteria are known as peritrichous bacteria.

Monotrichous Bacteria:-

The bacteria having single flagella is known as Monntrichous bacteria.


Shape Of Bacteria

Generally, bacteria are classified into three categories on the bases of their shape which are following.

Bacteria: Definition, Structure, Types, Shapes And Economic Importance
Shapes of bacteria



1.Cocci Shape Bacteria

They are rounded or spherical shape nonmotile bacteria. They are nonmotile because they are without flagella.

Forms

They are found in single or group forms i.e

If they occur in pair form, they are called diplococcus.

When they form long chains they are called streptococcus.

If they form clusters like grapes they are called Staphylococcus.


Example

                Diplococcus pneumonia,streptococcus


2.Bacilli Shape Bacteria

They are rod or cylindrical shaped bacteria having flagella and are motile.

Forms

They form filamentous colonies-i.e

If they form pairs they are called diplobacilli.

if they are present in chains they are called streptobacilli.

Example

                 E.Coli,PseudomonasSalemonella Typhi.

3.Spirilla Shape Bacteria

 They are spiral shape bacteria and have flagella at both ends and are motile.

Forms

They never form clusters or colonies. They have three forms

Vibrio:-Vibrio is curved or comma shape

Spirillum:-Spirillum is a thick, rigid shape.

Spirochete:- Spirochete is a thin, flexible spiral shape.

Example

             Vibrio cholera, Treponema.




Economic importance of bacteria:-


Role of bacteria in the Food Industry

Bacteria can perform anaerobic respiration by which we can form Yogurt, cheese, beer, etc.

Role in Pharmaceutical Industries

Bacteria play important role in the pharmaceutical industries from the bacteria we can extract many antibiotics like Terramycin, Streptomycin, etc.

Bacteria are also used in insulin production.

Bacteria are used in agriculture against pests which is harmful to the plants.

bacteria are used as decomposers.they can decompose the organic matter of dead plants and animals.

Bacteria are used in various genetic research. The scientist takes their desires gene and puts it in the plasmid we know that plasmid replicate irrespective of cell division so due to this a lot of gene production occurs from one single gene.

Bacteria are used as biofertilizer, in various industries like petroleum, tobacco, leather, mining, and textile industries.


ABOUT THE POST

In this post, we discussed in detail about bacteria, bacteria types, bacteria shapes, and its economic importance in our daily life.I hope you all will like this information related to bacteria. if you have any queries regarding this topic you can ask me in the comment section.if you like this article plz do share it with your friends .Remember me in your prayers.Thanks



Friday, September 25, 2020

What Is Energy,energy Harvesting and Cellular Respiration? |TheZoology

            What is Energy Harvesting

Before going to explain our topic we will discuss first that what is energy? and why energy is necessary for an organism's daily normal activities. So without wasting your time lets get to discuss it.

 What is Energy In Biology?

Definition Of Energy:-

The ability of organisms to do work is known as Energy. Energy exists in various form like potential energy, Kinectic energy, Thermal energy, etc

What Is Energy,energy Harvesting and Celluler Respiration? |TheZoology


Why Energy Is Important?

Importance Of Energy

Energy is important for all living organisms for their body growth, reproduction, and their normal life activities like walking, running, playing, eating, etc. Energy is very important for the body because every cell of the body needs energy for its survival and normal function. Living organisms use the energy in the form of chemical energy and the energy is generated or produced through cellular respiration. we will discuss cellular respiration below in detail. 

Definition Of Energy Harvesting

.Energy Harvesting is the collection of energy in living organisms.every cell of the body needs energy for their survival and good function. the energy will produce in the body through cellular respiration.

What Is Cellular Respiration?

Cellular Respiration Definition:-

It is the series of enzyme control oxidation-reduction reactions in which a respiratory Substrate(formed during photosynthesis) is oxidized to carbon dioxide and oxygen is reduced into the water with the release of energy by a bond to bond breakage.

What Is Energy,energy Harvesting and Celluler Respiration? |TheZoology
types of energy




Reaction

Glucose(C6H12O6) + Oxygen(O2)------ 6Co2+6H2O+38ATP 

One Atp Is Equal To &.3 kilocalories

What is a Calorie?

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram water by one degree celsius.


Important Molecules In Energy Harvesting

The most important molecules in energy harvesting are electron carriers. the function of these molecules is the carrying of high energy electron from one molecule into another molecule.

These electron carriers are Nicotine Amide Addennine  Di-Nucleotide(NAD) and Cytochromes.

Cytochromes carry the only electron while NAD can carry both electron and proton from one molecule into another. There are further three types of electron carriers which are discussed below in detail.

1.Soluble electron Carrier:-

It is present in soluble form in the cytoplasm and carries an electron from one molecule into another molecule

2.Membrane Bounded Electron Carrier:-

It is bounded to the membrane and has a fixed position in the cytoplasm and didn't move from its place. that's, why they are called a membrane, bounded electron carrier.

3.Mobile Electron Carrier:-
They are present within the membrane and are mobile can move from one molecule to another molecule.


ABOUT THE POST

In this article, you learned in detail about the Energy, Energy Harvesting, the Importance of Energy in Organisms life, Cellular Respiration, and about Electron carriers. If you have any questions regarding this article you can ask me in the comment box I will try to clear your question in an easy way. please do like and share it with your friends. Remember me in your prayers. Thanks


Wednesday, September 23, 2020

Noun In English | What is Noun?Examples,Kinds And Cases Of Noun |Part Of Speeches.

                   PARTS OF SPEECH

                      What is a Noun? Example, Kinds, And Cases Of Noun

DEFINITION OF NOUN

"Noun is the name of person, place, thing or creature or an idea or quality, etc"

Examples Of Nouns

                 Ahmad,Karachi,Table,Cow,Bravery,Nightingale

Noun In English | What is Noun?Examples,Kinds And Cases Of Noun |Part Of Speeches.
Noun Definition, types



                            KINDS OF NOUN

1.Common Noun:-

"It is the name of a common person, place or thing"

Example

                    Boy, Village, Table

2.Proper Noun:-

"It is the name of a particular person, place or thing"

Example

                       Shakespear, Karachi, Bang-E-Dara.

3.Abstract Noun"-

"It is the name of an idea, quality, state, or action which can't be seen, heard or tasted"

Example

              Cleverness, Poverty, Revenge

4.Concrete Noun:-

"It is the name of a person, place or thing which can be felt or seen"

it is also called Material Noun.

Example

                  Table, Chair, Mango

5.Collective Noun:-

"It is used for both singular and plural but denotes a group of person, place or thing"

Example

                  Army, police.

Noun In English | What is Noun?Examples,Kinds And Cases Of Noun |Part Of Speeches.
noun with examples


6.Compound Noun:-

"A noun which is made of two or more than two words is known as Compound Noun"

Example

              Tea-Spoon, Blackboard, Father-In-Law.

                                  CASES OF NOUN  

The case shows the relation of a noun to some other words in a sentence. The following are the cases of the noun which is explained in detail.

1.Nominative Case:-

In this case, a noun is used as a subject or doer in a sentence.

Example

                 1.Saima sings a song.

                   2.Ali is watching the Tv

In the above example, 'Saima' and 'Ali' are in the nominative case, This case is also called Subjective Case.


2.Possessive Case:-

In this case, a noun is used to show possession(Ownership, Relation, or Authorship) in a sentence.

Example

               1.Ahmads's house.

               2.Ali's Brother is my class fellow.

                3.Allama Iqbal's Poem.


3.Objective CAse:-

A noun that is objected to a transitive verb, a preposition, or participle is in the objective case.

Example

               1.He ate a banana

                2.He live in a Karachi.

                 3.Seeing Ali, I left that place.

Noun In English | What is Noun?Examples,Kinds And Cases Of Noun |Part Of Speeches.
what is a noun?



4.Vocative Case:-

In this case, a noun is used in a sentence for the sake of address

Example

         1.Huury up, Boys.

          2.Ahmad, have you seen that fish?

In the above example, 'Ahmad' and 'Boy' are in the vocative case.



ABOUT THE POST

In this post, you learned in detail about the noun, kinds of nouns, and cases of nouns in a well and easy way. if you have any questions regarding this topic you can ask me in the comment box I will try to answer readily. I will write in detail about all parts of the speech so keep in touch with us and do like and share it with your friends. Remember me in your prayers. Thanks